Before we start today, let me answer to one of your questions first.
In drills for week 15 under section A: my brother sold
How do I translate this?
I’m asking because if I translate this to ‘bara:daram foru:khtan’ and translate it back I get ‘My brother to sell’. On the other hand if I translate this to ‘bara:daram foru:khtam’ I will get ‘My brother I sold’.
I am sure most of you know the answer. So, let’s answer to his question together before he sells his poor brother!
Delete /nu:n/ from the end of infinitives to make a verb in simple past tense.
Here, delete /nu:n/ from the end of /foru:khtæn/ to have /foru:kht/, which is a verb in simple past tense.
As you know, each verb has a suffix that represents our subjects. For example, if we put /mæ/ at the end of /foru:kht/ we will get /foru:khtæm/, which means /mæn foru:khtæm/ = I sold.
If we put /ænd/ at the end of /foru:kht/ we will have /foru:khtænd/, which means /a:nha: foru:khtænd/ = they sold.
And so on.
Now, suppose we want to say ‘he sold’.
In Persian, verbs that come with third person singular subjects (he – she – it) do not accept any suffixes. That is to say, by deleting /nu:n/ from the end of infinitives, we have automatically got a verb in simple past tense whose subject is either he or she and, sometimes, it.
As a result, /foru:kht/ means he or she sold.
/nevesht/ means he or she wrote.
/khord/ means he or she ate.
/ræft/ means he or she went.
Surely, we know that
My brother = he
My sister = she
Paul = he
Helen = she
My brother sold = he sold
My sister sold = she sold
In short, my brother sold = /bæra:dæræm (u:) foru:kht/. Not my brother I sold!!
I hope the explanation is clear.
1- Listen to the audio files first (preferably once). Repeat it for a couple of times. Write it down on a paper. Find their English equivalents. (Seen)
2- Find the Persian equivalent for the following words and make nine sentences with each of them (one in simple past tense, negative in simple past, interrogative in simple past, one in present perfect tense, negative in present perfect tense, one using ‘for’, and one with ‘since’, one in simple future tense, and negative in simple future tense).
3- Say these numbers in Persian:
12000 – 3123 – 701 – 351 – 6013 – 900
Today, we are going to learn the question form of sentences in simple future tense. Here’s how:
As we did with two other tenses (simple past and present perfect tense), we need to put the word /a:ya:/ at the beginning of our sentences. That’s it!
Let’s see some examples and then go to useful drills page.
Will he come? /a:ya: (u:) kha:hæd a:mæd/?
Will they write? /a:ya: (a:nha:) kha:hænd nevesht/?
Will my brother sell? /a:ya: bæra:dæræm (u:) kha:hæd foru:kht/?
Will your father make? /a:ya: pedæræt (u:) kha:hæd sa:kht/?
And so on. Hope it is not difficult.