Persian Lesson 9 – Letters /he/ to /ye/, sokoon, tashdid

Persian Lesson 9 – Letters /he/ to /ye/, sokoon, tashdid

Hello everyone, Welcome back!

Last week I received a very good message from a 15-year-old Brazilian with some good suggestions in it. I wish all of your messages were like this! He had some good suggestions one of which was to present the Persian samples page bilingually. It is a good idea, but believe me that it demands a lot of work. Nevertheless, in spite of all the problems I have, I am going to update the Persian samples page and present it in both Persian and English. In the meantime, I want to make it clear right now that most of the Persian texts you see in Persian samples page are really the masterpieces of our modern literature. Honestly, it is beyond the ability of my knowledge to present a comprehensive word for word translation for all of them. Nevertheless, I am trying to give you a general idea about each work and translate parts of these works into English wherever possible. What you should keep in your mind is that the original texts are at least ten times stronger than my work. Anyway, I have tried hard during the last week to do my best to give you a very interesting explanation of the texts in English (at least I think so!). Kindly forgive me that due to many things (lack of enough knowledge, lack of resources, lack of references, lack of time! and so on) I haven’t been able to provide you with a comprehensive translation for these works.

What I am sure of is that you are going to like it! So, I strongly invite all of you to go back to the first week and Persian samples page and read the explanations of the Persian samples text from the very beginning. I have just uploaded nine explanations for the nine previous weeks. You may find each explanation on each week’s Persian samples pages (from week 1 to week 9) in their own original pages. Please take a look at them and please let me receive your suggestions or even a single message. You are going to support yourselves by supporting me through sending simple messages.

Ok. Now let’s begin.

How was the previous lesson? Let me know if you faced any problems. Today we are going to complete the part one which was about learning the letters and vowels. Most probably, we will take a very short review of the previous lessons next week. After that we will begin the main part of our work. Please try to get fluent with these basics now.

Last week, we learned four letters. Let’s take a look at them again. , , , . Click here if you want to listen to them once more.

Lam to Vav

As you know, we have two more letters for today. Right? They are as follows:

31. This one is the big letter ‘H’ in Persian. It is called /he/ as in hen.


It appears at the end of the words only and stands separated from other letters. Like this one: .

This letter has three small forms. Look at this . It appears at the beginning of the words and is attached to the next letter. Like here .

Sometimes it sits between two letters and attaches to both of them. In this case you will find it as . Like this word .

The third form is when it appears at the end of the words and is attached to the previous letter. In this case you will find it as .

When combined with the vowels, it may be pronounced as .

All He

Note: As you see, these two letters and , when combined with the vowels, have the same pronounciation.

32. This is the big letter ‘Y’ in Persian. It is called /ye/ as in yes.


It appears at the end of the words and stands either attached or separated. Like these words: , .

And finally, this is the small letter /ye/.

When combined, it may be pronounced as .

All Ye

All right. Now that we have learned the letters and the way they are pronounced, I need to explain something that is somehow necessary.

As you remember, we have six vowels in Persian, which enable us to pronounce the letters. And as you have probably noticed, I have already mentioned that we have six main sounds (vowels). Do you remember? I said that because in addition to these six vowels we have two more that can hardly be called vowels.

Let me explain it a bit more. How do you pronounce this English word ‘address’? I am sure all of you can pronounce it well. It is something like this /ædres/. Is it correct? Good! Now tell me how do you pronounce the letters ‘d’ and ‘s’ here? It’s quite clear. Your tongue simply stops or pauses on these letters without producing any extra sounds. It seems not so important in English. Nevertheless, in Persian we have a name for this. It is called pause or sokoon /soku:n/in Persian.


The representative of this pause is what you see on .

Let’s see the second one. Look at this English word ‘attach’. As you see, we have two ‘T’ in this word. Just suppose that we are breaking this word like this: ‘at- tach’. What we find out here is that our tongue stops or pauses on the first ‘T’ and pronounces the second ‘T’. What the Persian grammar, or I’d better say the Arab-based grammar, is asking us to do is this: ” Whenever one letter is written twice and the first one is paused, we should simply delete the first one and pronounce the second one with an emphasis.” Is the explanation clear? I need to mention it here that this one is not used very often in Persian but it is used anyway!

This emphasis is called Tashdid /tæshdid/.


The representative of this emphasis or Tashdid is what you see here on ‘A’: . For example . You don’t need to worry about this. Maybe you will see it once in one hundred words and probably you won’t use this rule at all!