1- Listen to the audio files first (preferably once). Repeat it for a couple of times. Write it down on a paper. Find their English equivalents. (Seen)
2- Find the Persian equivalent for the following words and make four sentences with each of them (one in simple past tense, one in present perfect tense using ‘for’, one in simple future tense, and one in past perfect tense).
My younger brother
3- Say these numbers in Persian:
22 – 34 – 90 – 108 – 5000 – 5005 – 61111
4- Follow the examples, combine the letters, and make words using the given letters. You’ll have to change the big letters into the small ones whenever needed.
Friend <= /du:st/ < ==
Book <= /keta:b/ < ==
Kite <= /Ba:d ba:dæk/< ==
Plate <= /Bosh gha:b/ < ==
Cat <= /Gorbeh/ < ==
Mouse <= /Mu:sh/ < ==
White <= /Sefid/ < ==
Ball <= /Tu:p/ <==
As you know, we are going to start simple present tense today. I guess we will have to spend some time on this tense. Please read today’s lesson very carefully and patiently.
Before we start, let me remind you again that this tense is irregular. So, don’t expect me to tell you how the verbs change here. I will have one answer to such questions: I don’t know!!
Let’s see an example in English:
Look at this verb: To Take
How do you say this verb in different tenses?
I take (present simple tense)
I took (simple past tense)
I have taken (present perfect tense)
As you see, this verb has three different forms in three different tenses. You have done me a great favor if you kindly tell me why!
This verb is irregular. I have no more explanation to add to this.
The same is true in Persian. All verbs in simple present tense are irregular. I am emphasizing on this to save time both for you and me in future! In Persian, we have something like a proverb that says: “The war we have in the beginning is better than the peace we might have in the end!” To be frank, I am not sure if this is right! Whatever it is, it saves me now! In short, please don’t spend time to write and ask me to explain how the verbs change like this in this tense. This is the war in the beginning!
What I can tell you now is that I will do my best to make it as understandable as possible. Do not be afraid! We will make it easier together. Ready?
Each Persian verb has an imperative base or root. To find this imperative base is the most important job we have got to do here.
In the beginning, you as beginners are not able to find this root. I believe it is better for you to learn the root at this stage just as I give them to you. That is to say, a parrot-like repetition based on comparison. How?
I give you a verb.
I give you the imperative base or root of the verb.
You should learn this imperative root.
You should compare this root with the verb.
After some time (it depends on your ability) you will be able to guess the imperative root of verbs.
Result: You have overcome this tense successfully!
Let me explain in brief the imperative form of verbs to those who may not be familiar with this.
Look at the following phrases:
Close the door!
Please open the window!
Please do not speak!
Do not speak!
And thousands of similar examples. Whenever, you put verbs in the beginning of your sentences, you are either requesting or ordering somebody to do or not to do something. In short, this is an imperative sentence. I hope I have explained it correctly. If not, please correct my definition before it is too late!
Now, let’s go back to our Persian lesson.
Note: If you find the following explanation difficult to follow, just follow the examples given below (although this is not recommended). In this way, you will learn how to say each verb with different subjective pronouns without having to explore the rule in the very beginning. Then, you may find the following explanations easier.
In this tense, I will try to work with the familiar verbs to avoid further confusion.
Look at this verb:
To go = /ræftæn/.
Go! (Imperative) = /ro/!
Currently, we have nothing to do with the second option (boro). So, just concentrate on the first option, which is /ro/.
As a general rule, put /mi/ before /ro/, and you will have /miro/.
Is it clear? Good!
Now, suppose that we want to say the followings:
Wow! Don’t tell anybody that the teacher himself is afraid now!
Here, we need the help of some suffixes. We are already familiar with almost all of them. Let’s take a look at these suffixes:
Try to repeat these suffixes for a couple of time.
Now, we want to say: I go
Try this way:
/miro æm/ <== /æm/ + /miro/
As you see, it is a bit difficult to pronounce. What is the solution? The best way is to modify the pronunciation a bit. So, instead of saying /miro æm/, we’d better say: /mirævæm/ (Spelling is not changed).
I go = /mirævæm/.
You go = /mirævi/.
He/she/it goes = /mirævæd/.
We go = /mirævim/.
You go = /mirævid/.
They go = /mirævænd/.
Was it difficult?
Now, let’s see another example:
To eat = /khordæn/.
Eat! (imperative) = /khor/!
Just work on the first option only.
Put /mi/ before /khor/, and you’ll have /mikhor/.
Add suffixes to this.
I eat = /mikhoræm/.
You eat = /mikhori/.
He/she/it eats = /mikhoræd/.
We eat = /mikhorim/.
You eat = /mikhorid/.
They eat = /mikhorænd/.
Note: In this example, we don’t need to modify the pronunciation since we don’t have any other redundant sound like /o/ in /ro/.
Now, let’s see another example:
To write = /neveshtæn/.
Write! (imperative) = /nevis/!
Just concentrate on the first option.
I write = /minevisæm/.
You write = /minevisi/.
He/she/it writes = /minevisæd/.
We write = /minevisim/.
You write = /minevisid/.
They write = /minevisænd/.